Emoji Literature Review


Beißwenger, M. and Pappert, S. (2019) Handeln mit Emojis. Grundriss einer Linguistik kleiner Bildzeichen in der WhatsApp-Kommunikation, Universitätsverlag Rhein-Ruhr.

Danesi, Marcel (2017) The Semiotics of Emoji London: Bloomsbury Academic

Evans, Vyvyan (2017) The Emoji Code, London: Michael O’Mara Books Limited

Seargeant, Philip (2019) The Emoji Revolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stolk, L. (2018) Het zonder woorden-boek: Waarom we steeds meer zeggen met emoji, Maven Publishing.

Wijeratne, S., E. Kiciman, H. Saggion, A. Sheth (eds.) (2018) Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Emoji Understanding and Applications in Social Media (Emoji2018), Stanford, CA, USA, 25-JUN-2018, published at http://ceur-ws.org

Wilde, Lukas and Elena Giannoulis (eds.) (2020) Emoticons, Kaomoji, and Emoji: The Transformation of Communication in the Digital Age, London/New York: Routledge.


Abidin, C. (2018) The Semiotics of Emoji: The Rise of Visual Language in the Age of the Internet. Discourse & Communication 12 (4): 450-453.

Abidin, C. & Joel Gn (2018) Histories and Cultures of Emoji Vernacular, First Monday 23(9)

Abidin, C., and Joel Gn. (2018) “Between art and application: Special issues on emoji epistemology.” First Monday, 23(9)

Albert; Georg (in press): Beyond the binary? Emoji as a challenge to the image-word distinction. In: Crispin Thurlow / Christa Dürscheid / Federica Diémoz (eds.): Visualizing digital discourse: Interactional, institutional and ideological perspectives. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Albert, Georg (in press): Emojis und soziale Registrierung (enregisterment). Positionierungsaktivitäten am Beispiel der psychosozialen Online-Beratung. Erscheint in: Jannis Androutsopoulos / Florian Busch (Hgg.): Register des digitalen Schreibens. Variation, Praktiken, Reflexion.

Androutsopoulos, J. / F. Busch (eds.) (in press): Register des Graphischen. Variation, Interaktion und Reflexion in der digitalen Schriftlichkeit. Berlin: de Gruyter (Linguistik –Impulse und Tendenzen).

Annamalai, Subashini, and Sobihatun Nur Abdul Salam. 2017. “Undergraduates’ Interpretation on WhatsApp Smiley Emoji.” Jurnal Komunikasi, Malaysian Journal of Communication 33 (4): 89–103.

Artamonova, O. / J. Androutsopoulos (under review) Smartphone-based language practices among refugees: Mediational repertoires in two families. Journal für Medienlinguistik.

Aull, B. (2019) A study of phatic emoji use in WhatsApp communication, Internet Pragmatics, 2: 2, pp. 206 – 232.

Barbieri F, Camacho-Collados J. (2018) How gender and skin tone modifiers affect emoji semantics in Twitter. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics, Jun 5-6; New Orleans, LA. Stroudsburg (PA) pp. 101-6.

Barbieri, Francesco, Francesco Ronzano & Horacio Saggion (2016) What does this Emoji Mean? A Vector Space Skip-Gram Model for Twitter Emojis, Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016), Portorož, Slovenia Available at: https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/L16-1626.pdf

Barbieri, Francesco, German Kruszewski, Francesco Ronzano & Horacio Saggion. (2016). How Cosmopolitan Are Emojis? In ACM Multimedia Conference (pp. 531–535). doi.org/10.1145/2964284.2967278

Barbieri, Francesco, Luis Espinosa-Anke, Horacio Saggion. (2016) Revealing patterns of Twitter emoji usage in Barcelona and Madrid. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. Artificial Intelligence Research and Development 288 pp. 239-244. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-696-5-239

Barbieri, Francesco, Luis. Marujo, Pradeep Karuturi, William Brendel & Horacio Saggion. (2018). Exploring emoji usage and prediction through a temporal variation lens. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2130, 1–5.

Barbieri, Francesco, Miguel Ballesteros, Francesco Ronzano & Horacio Saggion. (2018). Multimodal Emoji Prediction, 679–686. doi.org/10.18653/v1/n18-2107

Bieswanger, Markus (2013). “MicroLinguistic Structural Features ofComputerMediated Communication”. In: Pragmatics of Computer­Me­diated Communication. Ed. by Susan C. Herring, Dieter Stein, and TuijaVirtanen. Berlin, Boston: de Gruyter, pp. 463

Beißwenger, M. and Pappert, S. (2019) How to be polite with emojis: a pragmatic analysis of face work strategies in an online learning environment, European Journal for Applied Linguistics, 7: 2, pp. 225-253.

Beißwenger, M. and Pappert, S. (2019) Face work mit Emojis. Was linguistische Analysen zum Verständnis sprachlichen Handelns in digitalen Lernumgebungen beitragen können, in: Beißwenger, M. and Knopp, M. (eds) Soziale Medien in Schule und Hochschule: Linguistische, sprach- und mediendidaktische Perspektiven, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, pp. 101-143. Open access: https://www.peterlang.com/view/9783631791622/9783631791622.00008.xml

Bjarke Felbo and Alan Mislove and Anders Søgaard and Iyad Rahwan and Sune Lehmann (2017) Using millions of emoji occurrences to learn any-domain representations for detecting sentiment, emotion and sarcasm 10.18653/v1/D17-1169 Available at: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.00524.pdf

Choi, Yuri, Kyung Hoon Hyun, and Ji-Hyun Lee. 2017. “Image-Based Tactile Emojis: Improved Interpretation of Message Intention and Subtle Nuance for Visually Impaired Individuals.” Human–Computer Interaction. DOI: 10.1080/07370024.2017.1324305

Cohn, Neil, Jan Engelen & Joost Schilperoord. (2019) The grammar of emoji? Constraints on communicative pictorial sequencing Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications. 4(3) Available at: https://cognitiveresearchjournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41235-019-0177-0  

Cohn, Neil, Tim Roijackers, Robin Schaap & Jan Engelen. (2018) Are emoji a poor substitute for words? Sentence processing with emoji substitutions, Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: The Cognitive Science Society, p. 1524-1529

Cunha, João, Nuno Lourenco, João Correia, Pedro Martins, and Penousal Machado (2019) Emojinating: Evolving Emoji Blends, Conference: 8th International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Music, Sound, Art and Design At: Leipzig, Germany, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-16667-0_8

Cunha, João, Pedro Martins & Penousal Machado (2018) How Shell and Horn make a Unicorn: Experimenting with Visual Blending in Emoji Conference: Ninth International Conference on Computational Creativity (ICCC 2018) At: Salamanca, Spain

Dainas, A. & Susan Herring (in press) Interpreting emoji pragmatics. In C. Xie, F. Yus, & H. Haberland (Eds.), Internet pragmatics: Theory and practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins

Danesi, Marcel (2017) Emoji in Advertising, International Journal of Semiotics and Visual Rhetoric (IJSVR) 1(2) DOI: 10.4018/IJSVR.2017070101

Danesi, Marcel. (2019). Emojis: Langue or Parole?. Chinese Semiotic Studies. 15. pp. 243-258. 10.1515/css-2019-0015.

de Seta, Gabriele (2018) Biaoqing: The circulation of emoticons, emoji, stickers, and custom images on Chinese digital media platforms, First Monday, 23(9), DOI: https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v23i9.9391

Dürscheid, Christa & Christina M. Siever. (2017). Beyond the Alphabet – Communication with Emojis.

Dürscheid, Christa/Siever, Christina Margrit (2017): Jenseits des Alphabets. Kommunikation mit Emojis. In: Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik 45/2, 256–285. https://doi.org/10.1515

Dürscheid, Christa/Dimitrios Meletis (2019): Emojis: A Grapholinguistic Approach. In: Haralambous, Yannis (Hrsg.): Graphemics in the 21st Century. Brest: Fluxus Edition (= Grapholinguistics and Its Applications 1), 167–183. https://www.ds.uzh.ch/dam/jcr:70bf5dab-7718-46bd-aae5-91d7e1a66f04/Duerscheid_Meletis2019_Emojis_Grapholinguistic_Approach.pdf

Eru, Oya & Yakın, Volkan. (2019). Research on determining perceptions and attitudes towards emoji use in digital marketing campaigns. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 10.35379/cusosbil.613917.

Feng, Y., Lu, S., Zhou, W., Wang, Z. and Cao, Q. (2020) New Emoji Requests from Twitter Users: When, Where, Why, and What We Can Do About Them. ACM Trans. Soc. Comput. 3, 2, Article 8, https://doi.org/10.1145/3370750 

Feng, Yuhui, Menlan Qiu, Yan Li, Haiyang Yang (2016) Cross-Culture Business Communication by Emoji in GMS, Proceedings of the 2016 International Symposium on Business Cooperation and Development, https://doi.org/10.2991/isbcd-16.2016.38

Feng, Yuhui, Menlan Qiu, Yan Li, Haiyang Yang (2017) Sentence structure study of Emoji communication, In: 2nd International Symposium on Business Corporation and Development in South-East and South Asia under B$R Initiative (ISBCD 2017), DOI: 10.2991/isbcd-17.2017.17

Freedman, Alisa (2018) “Japanese Emoji and Cultural Literacy: Who is Crying with Joy?” First Monday: Peer-Reviewed Journal on the Internet. Special issue on “Emoji Epistemology.” Edited by Joel Gn and Crystal Abidin.

Freedman, Alisa (2020) Cultural Literacy in the Empire of Emoji Signs: Who is :D? In Wilde, Lukas & Elena Giannoulis (eds.) (2020) Emoticons, Kaomoji, and Emoji: The Transformation of Communication in the Digital Age, London/New York: Routledge.

Frick, Karina (in press): Graphische Variation im Rahmen emotionaler Online-Praktiken. In: Androutsopoulos, J. / F. Busch (eds.): Register des Graphischen. Variation, Interaktion und Reflexion in der digitalen Schriftlichkeit. Berlin: de Gruyter (Linguistik –Impulse und Tendenzen).

Gawne, Lauren and Gretchen McCulloch. (2019) Emoji as digital gestures. Language@Internet, 17, article 2.

Ge, J. (2018). Why emoji are a [gift] for your DMO’s content marketing. Destination Think. https://destinationthink.com/emoji-dmo-content-marketing/

Ge, Jing & Susan C. Herring (2018) Communicative functions of emoji sequences on Sina Weibo, First Monday, 23(11) https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v23i11.9413

Ge, Jing & Ulrike Gretzel (2018) Emoji rhetoric: a social media influencer perspective, Journal of Marketing Management, 34:15-16, 1272-1295, DOI: 10.1080/0267257X.2018.1483960

Ge, Jing. (2019). Emoji Sequence Use in Enacting Personal Identity. Companion The 2019 World Wide Web Conference, pp. 426-438. San Francisco, CA, USA — May 13 – 17, 2019 10.1145/3308560.3316545

Giannoulis, Elena (2018) Kaomoji in Japanese Literature, In: Giannoulis, Elena; Wilde, Lukas R. A. (Eds.) (2019). Emoticons, Emoji and Kaomoji: The Transformation of Communication in the Digital Age. Routledge

Gn, Joel (2018) Emoji as a ‘language’ of cuteness, First Monday, 23(9)

Graham, S. L. (2019). A wink and a nod: The role of emojis in forming digital communities, Multilingua, 38: 4, pp. 377-400.

Gullberg, Kajsa (2016): Laughing Face with Tears of Joy. A Study of the Production and Interpretation of Emojis among Swedish University Students. http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=8903284&fieOId=8903285,

Herring, S. & Dainas, A (2018) Receiver interpretations of emoji functions: A gender perspective. In S. Wijeratne, E. Kiciman, H. Saggion, & A. Sheth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Emoji Understanding and Applications in Social Media (Emoji2018), Stanford, CA, June 25. http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~herring/emoji2018.pdf

Herring, S. & Dainas, A (in revision) Gender and age influences on interpretation of emoji functions

Herring, S.C., & Dainas, A. (2017). “Nice Picture Comment!” Graphicons in Facebook Comment Threads. HICSS.

Highfield, Tim (2018) Emoji hashtags // hashtag emoji: Of platforms, visual affect, and discursive flexibility, First Monday, 23(9). doi: 10.5210/fm.v23i9.9398  

Highfield, Tim and Tama Leaver (2016). ‘Instagrammatics and digital methods: studying visual social media, from selfies and GIFs to memes and emoji’. Communication Research and Practice. doi:10.1080/22041451.2016.1155332

Hilte, L., Vandekerckhove, R. and Daelemans, W. (2018). Adolescents’ social background and non-standard writing in online communication, Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7: 1, pp. 2-25.

Hilte, L., Vandekerckhove, R. and Daelemans, W. (2018). Expressive markers in online teenage talk: A correlational analysis, Nederlandse Taalkunde, 23: 3, pp. 293-323.

Hougaard, T. T. (2017). Emojier, interjektioner og affekt: – sorg og medfølelse på Facebook. MUDS – Møde om Udforskningen af Dansk Sprog16, 141-162.

Hougaard, Tina Thode & Marianne Rathje (2018). Emojis in the Digital Writings of Young Danes. In: Arne Ziegler (Editor), Jugendsprachen/Youth Languages: Aktuelle Perspektiven internationaler Forschung/Current Perspectives of International Research (pp. 773–806). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110472226-035

Hu, Tianran, Han Guo, Hao Sun, Thuy-vy Thi Nguyen, and Jiebo Luo. 2017. Spice up your chat: The intentions and sentiment effects of using emojis. In Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM), pp 102-111. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. 

Jaeger, Sara R., Yixun Xia, Pui-Yee Lee, Denise C. Hunter, Michelle K. Beresford, and Gastón Ares. 2017. “Emoji Questionnaires Can Be Used With a Range of Population Segments: Findings Relating to Age, Gender and Frequency of Emoji/Emoticon Use.” Food Quality and Preference 68: 397–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.12.011

Jucker, Andreas/Hausendorf, Heiko/Dürscheid, Christa/Frick, Karina/Hottiger, Christoph/Kesselheim, Wolfgang/Linke, Angelika/Meyer, Nathalie/Steger, Antonia (2018): Doing space in face-to-face interaction and on interactive multimodal platforms. In: Journal of Pragmatics 134, 85–101

Kaye, L. K., Wall, H. J. and Malone, S. A. (2016) ‘Turn that frown upside-down’: A contextual account of emoticon usage on different virtual platforms, Computers in Human Behavior, 60, pp. 463-467.

Kaye, L. K., Wall, H. J. and Malone, S. A. (2017). Emojis: Insights, Affordances and Possibilities for Psychological Science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 21. 66-68. 10.1016/j.tics.2016.10.007.

Kelly, Ryan & Watts, Leon (2015), ‘Characterising the inventive appropriation of emoji as relationally meaningful in mediated close personal relationships’ Paper presented at Experiences of Technology Appropriation: Unanticipated Users, Usage, Circumstances, and Design, Oslo, Norway, 20/09/15 – 20/09/15, Available at: https://purehost.bath.ac.uk/ws/files/130966701/emoji_relational_value.pdf

König, Katharina (2019): Sequential patterns in SMS and WhatsApp dialogues – Practices for coordinating actions and m anaging topics. In: Discourse & Communication 13(6), 612-629. DOI: 10.1177/1750481319868853

König, Katharina (2019): Stance taking with ‘laugh’ particles and emojis – Sequential and functional patterns of ‘laughter’ in a corpus of German WhatsApp chats. In: Journal of Pragmatics 142, 156-170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.01.008

Konrad, A., Susan Herring and D. Choi (in revision) Sticker and emoji use in Messenger: Implications for graphicon change.

Küster, Marc Wilhelm (2016) “Writing beyond the letter”. In: Tijdschrift voor Media­geschiedenis [Journal for Media History]19.2, pp. 1–17.

Küster, Marc Wilhelm Open and Closed Writing Systems. Some Reflections. In: In: Haralambous, Yannis (ed.): Graphemics in the 21st Century. Brest: Fluxus Edition (= Grapholinguistics and Its Applications 1)

Lee, J. Y., Hong, N., Kim, S., Oh, J., & Lee, J. (2016). Smiley face: Why we use emoticon stickers in mobile messaging. In Proc. 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct (pp. 760-766). New York: ACM.

Leung, Chi Hong & Winslet Ting Yan Chan (2017) Using emoji effectively in marketing: An empirical study, Journal of Digital & Social Media Marketing, 5(1), pp. 76-95

Li, Li/ Yang, Yue (2018): Pragmatic functions of emoji in internet-based communication – a corpus-based study. In: Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 3(1), 16, 1–12.

Lim, S. S. (2015). On stickers and communicative fluidity in social media. Social Media and Society, 1(1), 1-3.

McCulloch, Gretchen and Lauren Gawne (2018) Emoji Grammar as Beat Gestures, In: S. Wijeratne, E. Kiciman, H. Saggion, A. Sheth (eds.): Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Emoji Understanding and Applications in Social Media (Emoji2018), Stanford, CA, USA, 25-JUN-2018, published at http://ceur-ws.org

Menezes de Oliveira e Paiva, Vera Lúcia (2016): A linguagem dos emojis. In: Trabalhos em Lingüística Aplicada 55/2, 379–399.

Miller, H., Kluver, D., Thebault-Spieker, J., Terveen, L., and Hecht, B. (2017)
Understanding Emoji Ambiguity in Context: The Role of Text in Emoji-Related Miscommunication. Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2017). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.

Miller, H., Thebault-Spieker, J., Chang, S., Johnson, I., Terveen, L., and Hecht, B. (2016) “Blissfully Happy” or “Ready to Fight”: Varying Interpretations of Emoji. Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2016). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. Available at: https://grouplens.org/site-content/uploads/Emoji_Interpretation.pdf

Miltner, K. M. (2020) “One part politics, one part technology, one part history”: Racial representation in the Unicode 7.0 emoji set, New Media & Society, https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444819899623

Moschini, Ilaria (2018) Storytelling for Geeks. A Multimodal Analysis of Disney’s Stickers, Other Modernities, Available at: https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/AMonline/article/view/10755

Moschini, Ilaria. (2017). The “Face with Tears of Joy”; Emoji. A Socio-Semiotic and Multimodal Insight into a Japan-America Mash-Up. HERMES – Journal of Language and Communication in Business, (55), 11-25. https://doi.org/10.7146/hjlcb.v0i55.24286

Na’aman, N. Provenza, H. and Montoya, O. (2017) MojiSem: varying linguistic purposes of emoji in (Twitter) context, Proceedings of ACL 2017, Student Research Workshop, https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P17-3022.pdf

Pappert, S. (2017) Zu kommunikativen Funktionen von Emojis in der WhatsApp-Kommunikation, in: Beißwenger, M. (ed.) Empirische Erforschung internetbasierter Kommunikation, Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, pp. 175–211. Open access: https://www.degruyter.com/view/books/9783110567786/9783110567786-007/9783110567786-007.xml?lang=en

Parkwell, C. (2019) Emoji as social semiotic resources for meaning-making in discourse: Mapping the functions of the toilet emoji in Cher’s tweets about Donald Trump, Discourse, Context & Media, 30, 100307.

Pavalanathan, Umashanthi & Eisenstein, Jacob. (2015). Emoticons vs. Emojis on Twitter: A Causal Inference Approach. AAAI Spring Symposium 2016

Pavalanathan, Umashanthi & Fitzpatrick, Jim & Kiesling, Scott & Eisenstein, Jacob. (2017). A Multidimensional Lexicon for Interpersonal Stancetaking. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics 884-895. 10.18653/v1/P17-1082.

Pavalanathan, Umashanthi & Jacob Einstein (2016) More , Less 🙂 The Competition for Paralinguistic Function in Microblog Writing, First Monday, 11(7), Available at: https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/6879/5647#author

Prada, Marília, David L. Rodrigues, Margarida V. Garrido, Diniz Lopes, Bernardo Cavalheiro & Rui Gaspar. (2018). Motives, frequency and attitudes toward emoji and emoticon use. Telematics and Informatics, 35(7), 1925–1934. doi.org/10.1016/J.TELE.2018.06.005

Rashdi, Fathiya, A. 2018. “Functions of emojis in WhatsApp interaction among Omanis.” Discourse, Context and Media, 26: 117-126

Rettberg, J. W. (2017) Hand Signs for Lip-Syncing: The Emergence of a Gestural Language on Musical.Ly as a Video-Based Equivalent to Emoji, Social Media + Society, 3: 4: 205630511773575, https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305117735751

Riordan, M. A. (2017) The communicative role of non-face emojis, Computers in Human Behavior, 76, pp. 75-86.

Riordan, M. A. (2017) Emojis as Tools for Emotion Work: Communicating Affect in Text Messages, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 36: 5.

Robertson, Alexander, Walid Magdy, & Sharon Goldwater, (2018). Self-Representation on Twitter Using Emoji Skin Color Modifiers In International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. Retrieved from https://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM18/paper/view/17833/17080

Rodrigues, D., Marília Prada, Rui Gaspar, Margarida V. Garrido & Diniz Lopes (2018) Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED): Norms for emoji and emoticons in seven evaluative dimensions, Behavior Research Methods 50(1) pp. 392-405 https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-017-0878-

Rodrigues, David, Diniz Lopes, Marília Prada, Dominic Thompson & Margarida V. Garrido. (2017). A frown emoji can be worth a thousand words: Perceptions of emoji use in text messages exchanged between romantic partners. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1532–1543. doi.org/10.1016/J.TELE.2017.07.001

Ronzano, Francesco, Francesco Barbieri, Viviana Patti Wahyu Pamungkas Endang & Francesca Chiusaroli. (2018). Overview of the Evalita 2018 Italian emoji prediction (Itamoji) task. In Evaluation of NLP and Speech Tools for Italian (EvalITA).

Sampietro, A. (2016) Exploring the punctuating effect of emoji in Spanish WhatsApp chats, Lenguas Modernas, 47, pp. 91-113.

Sampietro, A. (2019) Emoji and Rapport Management in Spanish WhatsApp Chats, Journal of Pragmatics, 143, pp. 109-120.

Siebenhaar, Beat (2018): “Funktionen von Emojis und Altersabhängigkeit ihres Gebrauchs in der WhatsApp-Kommunikation”. In: Ziegler, Arne (Hg.): Jugendsprachen. Aktuelle Perspektiven internationaler Forschung. Berlin: De Gruyter: 749–772.

Siever, Christina Margrit (in print, together with Torsten Siever): Emoji-Text Relations on Instagram. Empirical Corpus Studies on Multimodal Uses of the Iconographetic Mode. In: Stöckl, Hartmut; Caple, Helen; Pflaeging, Jana (ed.): Image-Centric Practices in the Contemporary Media Sphere. Routledge (= Routledge Studies in Multimodality series), 177–203.

Siever, Chritina (2020) ‘Iconographetic Communication’ in Digital Media: Emoji in WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram, Facebook – from a Linguistic Perspective In: Wilde, Lukas and Elena Giannoulis (eds.) (2020) Emoticons, Kaomoji, and Emoji: The Transformation of Communication in the Digital Age, London/New York: Routledge.

Skiba, Diane J. (2016) Face with Tears of Joy Is Word of the Year; Are Emoji a Sign of Things to Come in Health Care? Nursing Education Perspectives, 37: 1, pp. 56-57 doi: 10.1097/01.NEP.0000476112.24899.a1

Stark, L. and Kate Crawford (2015) The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, affect and Communication, Social Media + Society, 1: 2, https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115604853

Sugiyama, Satomi (2015) Kawaii meiru and Maroyaka neko: Mobile emoji for relationship maintenance and aesthetic expressions among Japanese teens. First Monday 20(10). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v20i10.5826

Sweeney, Miriam. E. & Kelsea Whaley (2019). Technically white: Emoji skin-tone modifiers as American technoculture. First Monday24(7), http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v24i7.10060.

Szurawitzki, Michael (2016). Zur Kulturspezifik von Emojis. In: Muttersprache, Nr. 2. S. 64-66.

Szurawitzki, Michael (2018): Researching Digital Communication Practices among German-Speaking Expats in China: Study Design. Language Studies and Modern Humanities 1.1: 22-29.

Szurwawitzki, Michael (2019): WeChat – Funktionsweise, technische Möglichkeiten und Emoji-Kommunikation. In: Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik

Tigwell, Garreth & David Flatla (2016) Oh that’s what you meant!: reducing emoji misunderstanding, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct, Florence, Italy. pp. 859-866, 10.1145/2957265.2961844

Tse-Shang Tang, Denise (2017) All I get is an emoji: dating on lesbian mobile phone app Butterfly, Media, Culture & Society, 39(6), 816–832. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443717693680

Wall, H. J., Kaye, L. K. and Malone, S. A. (2016) An Exploration of Psychological Factors on Emoticon Usage and Implications for Judgement Accuracy, Computers in Human Behavior, 62, pp. 70-78

Wei Ai, Xuan Lu, Xuanzhe Liu, Ning Wang, Gang Huang, and Qiaozhu Mei, (2017) Untangling emoji popularity through semantic embeddings, Proceedings of the Eleventh International AAAI on Web Social Media, pp. 2–11, and at https://aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM17/paper/view/15705

Weissman B, and Tanner, D. (2018) A strong wink between verbal and emoji-based irony: How the brain processes ironic emojis during language comprehension, PLoS ONE, 13: 8, e0201727. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201727

Wilde, Lukas (2020) The Elephant in the Room of Emoji-Research: Or, Pictoriality, to what Extent? In: Elena Giannoulis & Lukas R.A. Wilde (Eds.): Emoticons, Kaomoji, and Emoji: The Transformation of Communication in the Digital Age, London/New York: Routledge p.171-196.

Wiseman, Sarah & Sandy J. J. Gould (2018) Repurposing Emoji for Personalised Communication: Why 🍕 means “I love you”, Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Montreal QC, Canada — April 21 – 26, 2018, 10.1145/3173574.3173726

Wijeratne, Sanjaya, Lakshika Balasuriya, Amit Sheth, and Derek Doran (2017) A semantics-based measure of emoji similarity,” WI ’17: Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence, pp. 646–653. doi: https://doi.org/10.1145/3106426.3106490

Wood, I. and Ruder, S. (2016) Emoji as emotion tags for tweets, https://www.insight-centre.org/sites/default/files/publications/ianwood-emotionworkshop.pdf

Wolny, W. (2016). Emotion Analysis of Twitter Data That Use Emoticons and Emoji Ideograms. In J. Gołuchowski, M. Pańkowska, C. Barry, M. Lang, H. Linger, & C. Schneider (Eds.), Information Systems Development: Complexity in Information Systems Development (ISD2016 Proceedings). Katowice, Poland: University of Economics in Katowice. ISBN: 978-83-7875-307-0.

Xiaojuan Ma (2016) From Internet memes to emoticon engineering: Insights from the Baozou comic phenomenon in China, In: Masaaki Kurosu (editor). Human-computer interaction. Novel user experiences. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 9733. Cham: Springer, pp. 15–27. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39513-5_2

Xuan Lu, Wei Ai, Xuanzhe Liu, Qian Li, Ning Wang, Gang Huang, and Qiaozhu Mei (2016) Learning from the ubiquitous language: An empirical analysis of emoji usage of smartphone users, UbiComp ’16: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 770–780. doi: https://doi.org/10.1145/2971648.2971724

Yakın, Volkan and Oya Eru (2017) An application to determine the efficacy of emoji use on social marketing ads, International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, 3(1), pp. 230-240, Available at: http://dergipark.gov.tr/ijsser

Zhang, Wei (2017): Frequenz und Verteilung der Emoticons auf deutschem Twitter und chinesischem Sina-Weibo. In: Sprachreport. Informationen und Meinungen zur deutschen Sprache. Mannheim: Institut für deutsche Sprache, Heft 4/2017, 33. Jahrgang, 36–41.

Zhenpeng Chen, Xuan Lu, Wei Ai, Huoran Li, Qiaozhu Mei, and Xuanzhe Liu (2018) Through a gender lens: Learning usage patterns of emojis from large-scale Android users, WWW ’18: Proceedings of the 2018 World Wide Web Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 763–772. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3178876.3186157

Zhou, Rui, Jasmine Hentschel & Neha Kumar (2017) Goodbye Text, Hello Emoji: Mobile Communication on WeChat in China, Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Denver, Colorado, USA — May 06 – 11, 2017, pp. 748-759, 10.1145/3025453.3025800